## 8.8 Ex: 4 Chi-Squared

Identify response, explanatory, and moderating variables

• Categorical response variable = Ever smoked (variable eversmoke_c
• Categorical explanatory variable = General Health (variable genhealth
• Categorical Potential Moderator = Gender (variable female5_c

Visualize the relationship between smoking and general health across the entire sample.

plot_xtab(addhealth$genhealth, addhealth$eversmoke_c,
show.total = FALSE, margin = "row") +
ggtitle("Overall")

fem <- addhealth %>% filter(female_c == "Female")
mal <- addhealth %>% filter(female_c == "Male")

fem.plot <- plot_xtab(fem$genhealth, fem$eversmoke_c,
show.total = FALSE, margin = "row") +
ggtitle("Females only")
mal.plot <- plot_xtab(mal$genhealth, mal$eversmoke_c,
show.total = FALSE, margin = "row") +
ggtitle("Males only")

gridExtra::grid.arrange(fem.plot, mal.plot)

A general pattern is seen where the proportion of smokers increases as the level of general health decreases. This pattern is similar within males and females, but it is noteworthy that a higher proportion of non smokers are female.

Does being female change the relationship between smoking and general health? Is the distribution of smoking status (proportion of those who have ever smoked) equal across all levels of general health, for both males and females?

Fit both the original, and stratified models.

original

chisq.test(addhealth$eversmoke_c, addhealth$genhealth)
##
##  Pearson's Chi-squared test
##
## data:  addhealth$eversmoke_c and addhealth$genhealth
## X-squared = 30.795, df = 4, p-value = 3.371e-06

stratified

by(addhealth, addhealth$female_c, function(x) chisq.test(x$eversmoke_c, x$genhealth)) ## addhealth$female_c: Male
##
##  Pearson's Chi-squared test
##
## data:  x$eversmoke_c and x$genhealth
## X-squared = 19.455, df = 4, p-value = 0.0006395
##
## ------------------------------------------------------------
## addhealth$female_c: Female ## ## Pearson's Chi-squared test ## ## data: x$eversmoke_c and x\$genhealth
## X-squared = 19.998, df = 4, p-value = 0.0004998

Determine if the Third Variable is a moderator or not.

The relationship between smoking status and general health is significant in both the main effects and the stratified model. The distribution of smoking status across general health categories does not differ between females and males. Gender is not a moderator for this analysis.